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Friday, May 1, 2020 | History

2 edition of Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources found in the catalog.

Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources

Sue A. Meinke

Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources

ethical and legal issues

by Sue A. Meinke

  • 350 Want to read
  • 27 Currently reading

Published by National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University in Washington, D.C .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc. -- Moral and ethical aspects.,
  • Organ donors.,
  • Donation of organs, tissues, etc. -- Law and legislation.,
  • Donation of organs, tissues, etc. -- Moral and ethical aspects.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references (p. 5-11)

    Statementby Sue A. Meinke.
    SeriesScope note -- 12, Scope note (Washington, D.C.) -- 12..
    ContributionsNational Reference Center for Bioethics Literature.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination11 p. ;
    Number of Pages11
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16614333M

    At the trial [Matter of Baby K. 16 F.3d (4th Cir. ), n. 9 at ], expert testimony was given to demonstrate that provision of ventilator support for anencephalic infants goes beyond the accepted standard of care [6]. The legal team for Baby K's mother adhered to a religious sanctity-of-life principle as the basis for their Size: KB. Description: Every y unborn fetuses are diagnosed with a missing brain and parts of their skull, a birth defect known as anencephaly. 2, are brought to term; none will survive more than a few unborn infants, if brought to term, could save the lives of many infants in need, and could have the ability to give life without ever experiencing life for themselves. ANENCEPHALIC INFANTS AS ORGAN DONORS: A. QUESTION OF LIFE OR DEATH* The prospect of a larger supply of organ donors is positive in the abstract. But when the source of organs is anencephalic infants, a number of medical, ethical and legal concerns arise. The Author proposes that ventilator programs, provided thatCited by: 5.


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Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources by Sue A. Meinke Download PDF EPUB FB2

Infants with anencephaly require the same respect for life given to other human beings. As with other newborns, the standard medical criteria and ethical principles for organ donation and transplantation must be applied to anencephalic infants when they are considered as potential donors.

The Use of Anencephalic Infants as Organ Sources: A Critique  Shewmon, D. Alan; Capron, Alexander M.; Peacock, Warwick J.; Schulman, Barbara L. () The recent abandonment of the only active U.S. protocol for harvesting organs from anencephalic donors by Loma Linda University Medical Center in California indicates the unresolved issues inherent in such an effort.

The rationale of physicians and ethicists for suggesting the use of anencephalic infants as organ sources is that an anencephalic infant lives only a short time, usually a few days to a few weeks, has no possibility of conscious thought because of the lack of a cerebral cortex, or has only rudimentary development of the cerebral : Judith A.

Erlen. Thus, despite the great need for newborn organs, anencephalic infants are not as attractive a source as some had hoped. KIE The recent abandonment of the only active U.S. protocol for harvesting. Even if anencephalic newborns could be utilized as organ sources, at best a few hundred infants needing transplant organs would be saved each year.

Primarily, this is because the number of anencephalic newborns is likely to diminish due to prenatal diagnosis resulting in by: 4. The Anencephalic Infant as Organ Source Many medical, legal, and ethical questions are raised by the potential use of anencephalic infants as organ sources.

The positions that one adopts on this question can vary greatly, depending upon one’s convictions on such issues as abortion, eugenics, fetal rights, rights of handicapped.

Most commentators on anencephalic infants as organ sources would view both respect for the anencephalic infant and concern for the potential recipient as relevant duties, and hold that saving the recipient should be chosen if it does not violate respect for the life of the organ source.

Anencephalic Children as Organ Sources. Anencephaly is a brain defect that inhibits the complete formation of the brain and the skull during pregnancy. This disease has no cure and the life expectancy is very low since there is only function of vital organs like the heart Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources book the lungs (provided by their brain stem) for only a limited time.

the nature of anencephaly, the current statutory definitions of life and death, and explain why, within this framework, the infant with anencephaly is in fact, alive. Section II will also examine the rationale behind the various proposals to use anencephalic infants as a source of donor organs.

BCC Report on Organ Donation from Anencephalic Infants May 3 2. MEDICAL DIFFICULTIES The common medical difficulty in ensuring organ transplantation is twofold: 1.

ensuring viability of potential organs, whether obtained from living donors or dead individuals; 2. ensuring cadaver donors are really dead, to satisfy the ‘dead Anencephalic infants as potential organ sources book rule’.File Size: 65KB.

The potential to save the lives of infants dying from cardiac, renal and liver disease, and the desire to give meaning and benefit to the anencephalic infant’s family were presented as justification for changes in the medical standards and the law concerning death and organ donation from anencephalic infants.Cited by: They were the first center in the United States to propose, and eventually adopt, a protocol for the use of the anencephalic infants as a potential organ donor 63 The Loma Linda protocol, which was implemented in lateproceeded under the assumption that infants with anencephaly had to meet the traditional criteria for whole-brain death including apnea testing prior to being used as organ by: 5.

Hastings Center Report 32 Supra n.l. 33 Peabody, Emery & Ashwal 'Experience With Anencephalic Infants as Prospective Organ Donors' The New England Journal of Medicine 34 Task Force on Brain Death in Children 'Brain Death Determination in the Newborn' Pediatrics 35 JJ Volpe 'Brain Death Author: Caroline Hinds.

It is ethically permissible to consider the anencephalic as a potential organ donor, although still alive under the current definition of death only if: (1) the diagnosis is certain and confirmed by two physicians who are not part of the organ transplant team; (2) the parents of the infant desire to have the infant serve as an organ donor and indicate such in writing; and (3) there is compliance with the Council's Cited by: 1.

MEDICAL OBJECTIONS TO PROCURING ORGANS FROM ANENCEPHALIC INFANTS Lisa E. Hangert INTRODUCTION RECEN TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES HAVE made pe-diatric organ transplantation possible in infants. Technology has provided the means by which the medical profession may artificially sustain life to prolong an infant's dying process, orCited by: 1.

anencephalic infants to be organ sources simply because such disabled infants are not preferred and would be, according to Harriet Johnson, author of “Unspeakable Conversations,” “worse off” (96).

From an analysis of Ramsay’s assumptions, he appears to encompass the File Size: KB. This article discusses anencephalic infants as potential sources of organs for infants and young children.

Ethical issues relating to screening pregnant women, parental consent for organ donation, and the postnatal care of anencephalic infants are addressed.

Professional responsibilities are identified to enable nurses to act ethically when confronted by these issues in caring for mothers and Author: Judith A. Erlen. Organ Prolongation in Anencephalic Infants: Ethical & Medical Issues.

Transplantation of neonatal solid organs is now capable of saving scores of fatally ill newborns, and the possibility for saving more is on the horizon as techniques and medications are perfected.

In recent years, the need for infant organs for transplantation has increased. There is a growing recognition of the potential use of anencephalics as sources of organs.

Prevalent arguments defending the use of live anencephalics for organ sources are identified and criticized.

I argue that attempts to deny the applicability of the “dead-donor rule” are either question-begging or based on Cited by: 8. A pregnant woman wants to offer her anencephalic unborn baby to be used as a potential organ donor.

Many professionals question the ethics of this action. Organ donation from infants with anencephaly Guidance from the UK donation ethics committee 06 Background and existing advice 12 13 In its position paper on ethical issues in paediatric organ donation,3 UKDEC concluded: • It would be ethically acceptable for organ donation from infants with anencephalyFile Size: 83KB.

Anencephalic Infants as Sources of Transplantable Organs. In the state of Michigan established the Transplat Policy Center to conduct research and examine issues relevant to the formulation of sound public policy on transplantation.

About 1, anencephalic babies are born in the United States each year, and there is a shortage of hearts, livers and kidneys for transplantation in children.

tence. One of those on-going issues is whether infants born with anencephaly could and/or should be used as an organ source for other infants. While anencephaly is a fairly well-documented and distinct condi-tion,4 few individuals in the public have ever heard of it, let alone ex-plain what it is.

It has been defined by the Medical Task Force onFile Size: 83KB. Infants with anencephaly are potential sources of organs for transplantation. Some may not be candidates because of low birth weight, malformations, or instability of vital functions.

ANENCEPHALIC INFANTS AS SOURCES OF TRANSPLANTABLE ORGANS Dale L. Moore* ABSTRACT Under current medical practices, lifesaving organs are being lost by allowing anen­ cephalic infants (those born without an upper brain) to die slowly through natural pro­ cesses.

This article examines the controversy surrounding the argument made by SOmeAuthor: Dale Moore. * Anencephalic Infants as Potential Organ Sources: Ethical and Legal Issues by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Georgetown University, Washington DC * state-by-state-list for US transplant networks.

Organ Transplant of Infants with Anencephaly: Anencephaly is described as neural tube defect that has severe limits on the lifespan of affected infants. The condition is likely to contribute to the failure of the neural tissue to an extent that it can completely close at the cephalic end of the neural system.

Ethical issues in the use of anencephalic infants as a source of organs and tissues for transplantation. Transplant Proc. ;20((4), suppl 5) by: anencephalic infants turns, in part, on the depth of parents' desire to benefit an organ recipient.

If benefitting another child is an important end parents hold. ANENCEPHALIC INFANTS AS ORGAN SOURCES ANENCEPHALIC INFANTS AS ORGAN SOURCES WALTERS, JAMES W. Footnotes 1 Shewmon D.A., Capron A.M., Peacock W.J., et al. “The Use of Anencephalic Infants as Organ Sources: A Critique.”.

Helpful books and articles for parents affected by anencephaly: A Gift of Time Continuing Your Pregnancy When Your Baby's Life Is Expected to Be Brief by Amy Kuebelbeck and Deborah L.

Davis The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore ISBN Moral Principles Concerning Infants with Anencephaly Septem Anencephaly is a congenital anomaly characterized by failure of development of the cerebral hemispheres and overlying skull and scalp, exposing the brain stem.

The potential to save the lives of infants dying from cardiac, renal and liver disease, and the desire to give meaning and benefit to the anencephalic infant’s family were presented as justification for changes in the medical standards and the law concerning death and organ donation from anencephalic infants.

infants as a source of organs for transplantation. Under that protocol, anencephalic infants were. to be kept on life support for up to a week, at which point, if they were not yet brain dead, the.

support would be removed and they would be allowed to die naturally. Inthe Canadian Pediatric Society published a position paper recommending against organ donation from anencephalic neonates due to the difficulty in establishing brain death in this condition.

[2] Reports of donations from anencephalic babies are fewer since then. Wijetunga et al. reported the organ recovery of an anencephalic infant in Author: Dr.

Anjali Vyas. Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the rostral (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day following conception.

Strictly speaking, the Greek term translates as "no in-head" (that is Specialty: Medical genetics; pediatrics. Baby Evelyn, missing most of her brain when she was born, was on life- support systems Sunday at Loma Linda University Medical Center while doctors waited to see if her organs might be.

anencephalic infants alive for organ donation, HEALTH, Mar.at 12; Gorman, A Bal-ancing Act of Life and Death: New uses of fetuses and brain-absent babies trouble doctors, T'mE, Feb. 1,at 49; Foreman, Use of newborns as organ donors debated, Boston.

The first anencephalic baby to be kept alive in the United States solely for the purpose of preserving his organs for donation has been declared brain-dead, clearing the way for his liver and. () Peabody JL, Emery JR, Ashwal S.

Experience with anencephalic infants as prospective organ donors. N Engl J Med ; (6): () Kohrman FA, Clayton EW, Frader JE, Grodin MA. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics: Infants with anencephaly as organ sources: ethical considerations.

Pediatrics ; One very troublesome area of vital organ transplantation is the use of anencephalic infants as sources of these organs. Although both the proponents and opponents of this sad but potentially life-saving application of organ transplantation argue their positions .Anencephaly: | | | Anencephaly | | | | ||| World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive.